Sunday, May 24, 2020
Title: How Socio Economic Class Affects Health. Module : SHN 123 Word Count: 2118 Student Number : 558601 Inequalities in health between social groups have long been a dominant feature of British Society. Evidence suggests that people in the lower social scale suffer from ill health more than the middle and upper classes. This essay aims to address the reasons for this trend by primarily looking at evidence found in the Black Report, Acheson Report and the Marmot Review and by evaluating the explanations given to support the evidence. The concept of social class is wide ranging Ã¢â¬â people can move between classes or have character/ occupational traits that cross more than one class. (Giddens, 2001: p282) described Social Class as Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Acheson report also used the Registrar General Scale to support its findings, although the report did take note of the level of education, the residential area and the ability to own assets as a factor of defining social class. The Acheson report found that death rates had fallen between the years 1978-1998, but the differences among the top and bottom scale had widened. For People in the lower social classes, mortality rates were three times higher in 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s than they were in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. See table 5. This is due to a significant decline in the higher social classes mortality rate than in the lower classes. Premature Mortality (death before the age of 65) was considerably higher for those in social class V, Heart Disease was the prominent reason for premature death. See table 6. A link to such a large percentage of people dying due to heart disease could be linked to the problem of obesity within the lower classes. Although life expectancy had risen and people were living longer, they were not necessarily living healthier lives. In 2010 the Government ordered Ã¢â¬ËFair Society, Healthy LivesÃ¢â¬â¢ (The Marmot Review) The report used the NS-SEC method of gauging social class. In England the report discovered that people living in the poorest areas were on average more likely to die seven years younger than those living in theShow MoreRelatedSociological Knowledge in Nursing Essays1301 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSociology is the study of human social behavior, communities and society. It involves the evolution of society and human behavior and it focuses on how society can change human behavior based on interaction with each other (Bennett, B., 2009 p.2). Nursing is a health care profession which concentrates in supporting individuals, their families, and societies as a whole in preserving, attaining and improving best possible health and functioning (Kozier, et al., 2010 pp. 8-9). Sociological knowledgeRead MoreSociology and Psychology 823 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSociology and psychology is the study of the mind and the environment around us which makes us who we are. These theories assist us to understand behaviour from individual and societal levels. Sociology is a study of society social life, social change, and social causes and consequences of human behaviour and allows us to gain an understanding of the structure and dynamics of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, looking at the interlinking links patterns of human behaviour. Sociology looks at the in which social structureRead MoreEssay Ethnic Inequality in Health Care1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinequalities of health related to ethnicity, by providing some evidence that ethnic inequality in health is a reality in the society and include definitions of keywords. Secondly, I will bring forward arguments for and against on the major sociological explanations (racial discrimination, arefact, access to and quality of care) for the existence of health inequalities related to ethnicity. Thirdly, I would also like to take the knowledge learnt for this topic and brief outline how this may help meRead MoreNursing in the Classroom1608 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageson the history of nursing in the world, the Barbara Bates Center for the Study of the History of Nursing is uniquely situated to create research and scholarship that will position nursing history as central to debates about health policy and practice. The Center provides a broad array of educational opportunities across the School and University, nation and the world. Center faculty members are known for their mentorship and are highly sought after as history of nursing and health policy consultantsRead MorePsychology And Sociology And Psychology1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhen we think of society or people, and their behavior, psychology and sociology come to our mind. This is because they are academic fields that posses the same main idea, which is the study of the behavior. Although these two sciences have enormous differences, for those whom never had read anything about this topics it would seem the same. Despite bearing some superficial similarities, the differences between sociology and psychology are pronounced. Actually the main contrast between them isRead MoreWhy Nurses Should Study Sociology4078 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesStudy Sociology? Barbara Green and Sarah Earle Key issues in this chapter Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ The difference between sociology in nursing and sociology of nursing The value of developing sociological skills Using sociological skills in nursing practice Sociological knowledge: policy, practice and change By the end of this chapter you should be able to . . . discuss the reasons why nurses should study sociology; understand the distinction between sociology of nursing and sociology in nursing; understandRead MorePurnell Model For Cultural Competence1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCompetence The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence originated out of education and practice. In 1989, when he took nursing students to a community hospital that was not accustomed to having students. Soon after the clinical experience began, it was obvious that the students and staff need additional knowledge concerning culture. The students primarily came from middle and upper middle class white families which most of the patients and staff came from lower socioeconomic backgrounds or with their heritageRead MoreUnderstanding Addiction1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDoctorÃ¢â¬â¢s Opinion, Dr. William Silkworth (1939) wrote the following, Ã¢â¬Å"We believe, and so suggested a few years ago, that the action of alcohol on these chronic alcoholics is a manifestation of an allergy; that the phenomenon of craving is limited to this class and never occurs in the average temperate drinker. These allergic types can never safely use alcohol in any form at all; and once having formed the habit and found they cannot break it, once having lost their self-confidence, their reliance upon thingsRead MoreIndigenous Health1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesINTRODUCTION Indigenous health is a vital tool in health care today. The case study is about an indigenous lady who is from a remote community. This case study will define culture shock, transcultural theory. Finally it will states the recommendations that can be acquired to improve the current indigenous health care issue as it can be noted that the indigenous health tends has been deteoriating. Culture shock Culture is all about an individual knowledge basedRead MoreArgument Essay : The Land Of Opportunity 1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstood for in the eyes of many, though in this day and age, can we really agree that the so-called opportunity everyone shares is truly equal? James Loewen, who has a PhD is sociology, is also the author of The Land of Opportunity, which comes from his book Lies My Teacher Told Me. In Loewen s excerpt, he discusses how many of his first time college students answer a very broad question; Why are people poor?( 213). He states that a vast majority of them answer him with half-formed and wide-eyed
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Common SenseÃ¢â¬ Common Sense is a pamphlet made in 1775-76 by Thomas Paine. This pamphlet inspired the thirteen colonies to declare war and fight for independence against Great Britain. It was straight forward and told Great Britain exactly the advantages of being independent from them. On January 10, 1776 during the American Revolution, the pamphlet was published and became a huge topic in the community. It was the biggest talk of the colonies. In proportion to the population, the book was the biggest circulation across the colonies in American History. Thomas Paine was originally born in Britain and migrated to America after being convinced by Benjamin Franklin. He moved shortly before the revolutionary war. He became involved in the political life and started editing magazines and articles. In the war, after the first battle, Paine argued that Americans should seek independence from Britain. So the best way he could get his idea out to the colonies is to create a pamphlet. A theme Paine insert labeled the government as a necessary evil. Paine makes it clear that he is not a big fan of the government. He believed that the natural state that a man should live is without government. He believed that having a government would enhance all the problems of the people that would create an anarchy life. Another theme that is founded in Common Sense, is Americas relationship with the rest of Europe. Paine was highly aware of the benefits of having a good relationship with theShow MoreRelatedCommon Sense by Thomas Paine1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCommon Sense was written by Thomas Paine and published in 1776. Paine wrote it as a plea for the American people to break away from Britain and to declare independence from the king. He was asking his audience to take a step back and see that just because something is tradition, does not mean it is necessarily right. Paine wanted to show his readers that government and society is not the same thing, which is how most people viewed it. Society was something that people should want to have, whileRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine957 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespolitical pamphlet known as Common Sense was written by Thomas Paine in 1776. This pamphlet contributed in promoting the independence of America. In the pamphlet Thomas Paine challenged t he American colonists to separate from England and create a democratic and independent society. Along with challenging the American colonists, he hinted at his own opinions about a democratic government that America should plan towards if they seek to separate from England. Thomas Paine also bluntly proposed thatRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCommon Sense was written by an Englishman, Thomas Paine, who came to the American Colonies in 1774. He had strong opinions about the British Monarchy Ã¢â¬â and monarchy in general Ã¢â¬â including the fact that by nothing more than an accident of birth one man had rule over so many other humans. He viewed this elevation to monarch unnatural as all men are created equal. Additionally, Paine notes that Ã¢â¬Å"there is something exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of Monarchy; it first excludes a man fromRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine1036 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCommon Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that inspired people in the Thirteen Colonies to declare and fight for independence from Great Britain. It was actually first published anonymously. Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s basic theme throughout Common Sense is that government is a Ã¢â¬Å"necessary evilÃ¢â¬ . His argument begins with more general reflections about government and religion, then progresses onto the specifics. There is a quote from the first page of Common Sense that lays out Paine s general conceptionRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIndependance, Why They Should Thomas Paine, an English political philosopher and writer made his way to the colonies when his good friend, Benjamin Franklin convinced him to do so. He worked as an editor for the Pennsylvania Magazine. Although, published anonymously in 1776, Paine was the man behind Common Sense, a political pamphlet that was distributed between all the colonies and challenged the British government by suggesting American Independency. Paine wrote the Common Sense because in his mind heRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmerica what it is today. Common Sense by Thomas Paine was inspiring to many American colonists as it was persuasive in showing how the colonists should have their own independence. Paine appealed the average citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale, hence the title Common Sense. PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s pamphlet illustrates the importance of independence, and argues that colonial life under British rule was detrimental to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s potential to become prosperous. In a fairly lengthy, but readable style, Paine discusses the differencesRead MoreThomas Paine And Common Sense1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThomas Paine and Common Sense In colonial America, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s colonies were subjected to many Parliamentary acts that were considered to be, by many of the colonists, oppressive. The Declaratory Act, the Coercive Acts, and numerous other tax-based acts were just a few of the many examples of the controlling behavior displayed by the British Parliament toward their North American colonies. This seemingly oppressive behavior by the British Parliament had not gone unnoticed by those outside ofRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKayla Boucher Doctor Hockin AMH 2010 22 January 2015 Common Sense The book Common Sense by Thomas Paine was an American pamphlet written during the American Revolution, which was around the time when America was trying to gain independence from Britain. Paine discusses government, religion, and colonial issues. In the first chapter Paine differentiates between the society and the government. He described the society as being positive and constructive and he described the government beingRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine770 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThomas Paine first published Common Sense anonymously in 1776 and immediately became popular. I choose to read Common Sense by Thomas Paine, in order to know America and hopefully to understand the philosophy behind the founding of the country and how its government system was set up to function. In my opinion, one of the main reasons Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s pamphlet became favoured was because Paine used a lot of common sense opinions that most people could understand. In his pamphlet Common Sense, ThomasRead MoreCommon Sense By Thomas Paine934 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommon sense is a pamphlet created by Thomas Paine for the American colonies to get their independence from the British government and for the people to be able to choose the rulers or officials to govern over them. In Thomas Paine pamphlet he had four sections which where origin and design of government in which he states that elections where the right thing for any government because it represents the people, of monarchy and succession that lineage of kings should not be the head of government
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Most Popular Thesis Proposal Here's What I Know About Thesis Proposal Following is a good example of a written government proposal. A thesis is the consequence of a long thinking practice. The previous step in the procedure, Visualizing your finished publications, is most likely the most essential one in the 5-step procedure for writing a thesis proposal. You should construct a thesis that you're well prepared to prove employing the tools you've got available, without needing to consult the world's top expert on the issue to supply you with a definitive judgment. Give yourself credit for all of the work you've already done. Our work is to create certain that each and every customer is matched with one of the most perfect professional, and that means you maximize our services. You've got to be aware that the thesis works are intended to develop you as an individual, so studies in areas you've got personal interest are paramount. Proposals from former students are offer ed on the department website and can be reviewed to aid you in developing your proposal. Most PhD programs require a minumum of one publication. The student can't assume that the committee will read or respond to any extra appendices. It is very important that you craft a thesis sentence that's insightful, original and memorable to guarantee you impress the reader. It shouldn't be superficial, broad or sprawling as it beats the aim of the sentence. Before writing that kind of thesis statement, however, you need to consult with your instructor. Start out with a purpose statement that you'll later become a thesis statement. Because your thesis statement will be just one sentence at the conclusion of your introductory paragraph, you must select the most compelling argument for your statement. Put simply, the thesis ought to be a roadmap to the remaining part of the essay. A great thesis falls somewhere between both extremes. It's important before structuring the thesis to think about the very first argument that came into mind once you thought of your topic. The grade of the proposal document is a valuable part of the evaluation. Receive a sneak peek of the way in which a great doctoral proposal is written. The very first step to each very good thesis is the proposal. The focus has to be on the character of the item, not the graduation date. Writing a great thesis proposal isn't simple. Superior thesis statement might truly be tricky. Nowadays you have a working thesis! The thesis is the secret to any persuasive speech or essay. Key Pieces of Thesis Proposal Little comprehension of English can also ensure it is difficult that you develop a thesis topic. Usually, a scientific research proposal includes a succinct introduction to the research topic, a literature review, and a methodology that will explain the way the student plans to satisfy the goals of the research. A discussion of the research techniques that you have used 5. Thorough research and study are essential for a very good thesis topic. Gossip, Deception and Thesis Proposal There's no restriction on the amount of the abstract, but it is generally no longer than 1 page. The word abstract must be at the surface of the page in all-capital letters. The proposal is all about 15 to 20 pages. A thesis proposal isn't a location for typos or bad readability. The Hidden Facts About Thesis Proposal There are a few items that could assist the job of creating a thesis proposal faster and easier. It is possible to also compare a thesis proposal to an outline which provides you with a chance to highlight key points of the research you intend to undertake later on. If you're able to carefully outline the pieces of the thesis, you can stick to the outline in conducting the research to come up with the true project. A thesis involves original research and is an established process for developing specialized knowledge and techniques that could boost a person's expertise within a substantive subject of study. Your thesis will be dedicated to a particular topic. In case the topic is too broad, you'll most probably be overwhelmed with the materials offered and have to do lots of readings, which also can be quite tedious. A thesis proposal is crucial to be created as it's a way for those individuals who will evaluate your research topic or subject to comprehend how you'd like your study to further develop. Keep in mind a great thesis proposal demands a thorough description of the suggested topic. Vital Pieces of Thesis Proposal Developing a very good thesis is crucial because in severa l cases it sets the tone for the remainder of the paper and so, becomes a decisive point of your project's success. As you work on your thesis, don't forget to keep the remainder of your paper in mind in any respect times. If it's your very first time writing a dissertation, they you will need the whole thesis writing help you'll be able to get. Make certain you shape the subject of your paper such that you're ready to get to the middle of the topic.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Visioning the Scholarship Boy In Ã¢â¬Å"When We Dean Awaken: Writing as Re-Vision,Ã¢â¬ Rich describes the dilemma we all face as humans in our search for identity. Are we to allow the forces of the past to define us, or are we to transcend these forces creating a new identity? For Rich her struggle with a male dominated society causes her to redefine herself through writing. As the title of her piece suggests, Rich uses Ã¢â¬Å"writing as Re-vision,Ã¢â¬ a way to rewrite the past, effectively breaking free of tradition. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Achievement Of Desire,Ã¢â¬ Rodriguez is faced with a similar crisis of identity, when faced with HoggartÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"scholarship boyÃ¢â¬ . While this concept seems to represent the hold of authority over Rodriguez, he instead uses it in his search for identity, breaking the hold of authority over him. Rich writes, Ã¢â¬Å"until we understand the assumptions in which we are drenched we cannot know ourselvesÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ (Rich 18). In much the same way Rodriguez must understand the assumptions imposed by the concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"scholarship boyÃ¢â¬ in his quest for self-identity. When examining RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle the following questions arise: Has Rodriguez broken free of the academic authorities in his life, which attempt to rigidly define his identity? Is he a Ã¢â¬Å"scholarship boy,Ã¢â¬ or something more? When contemplating these questions, we come to a surprising result; Rodriguez had used his quest for identity as a catalyst, allowing him to solidify his own philosophy of education. Throughout the achievement of desire Rodriguez uses the concept of the scholarship boy to express his philosophy of education. While at first we see the scholarship boy as a mere caricature, eventually it begins to increase in depth, until finally we realize that Rodriguez is in fact talking about himself. Rodriguez writes: Ã¢â¬Å"In large part, however, the reason he is such a bad student is because he realizes more often and more acutely than most other students Ã¢â¬â than Hoggart himself Ã¢â¬â that education requires radical self-reformation. Ã¢â¬ (529) In this passage we begin to see pieces of RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of education. For Rodriguez, a successful education exists as a force of inevitable change. This change often pulls one away from their native culture, integrating them with society. Rodriguez states, Ã¢â¬Å" Radical educationalists meanwhile complain that ghetto schools oppress students by trying to mold themÃ¢â¬ ¦the truer critique would be just the reverse: not that schools change ghetto students too muchÃ¢â¬ ¦they change most students barely at all. Ã¢â¬ (529) For Rodriguez a proper education inevitably Ã¢â¬Å"moldsÃ¢â¬ the student. The emphasis in the American educational system on Ã¢â¬Å"creativity and originalityÃ¢â¬ ultimately hinders the success of the student. Rodriguez furthers his philosophy on education with his views on imitation. For Rodriguez imitation i Ã¢â¬Å"From the story of the scholarship boy there is no specific pedagogy to gleanÃ¢â¬ ¦ he makes clear that education is a long unglarorous even demeaning processÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Great quote to set up another paragraph For rodriguez, education need not be a pleasurable process. While thescholorship boy seems a negative story in reality it is a necessary one in terms of education. For the student of immigrant parents to become educated he must be ripped from his native culture Rodriguez reveals; Ã¢â¬Å"A primary reason for my success in the classroom was that I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t forget that schooling was changing me and separating me from the life I enjoyed before becoming a student. Ã¢â¬ (516) During the beginning of his life, Rodriguez lives as the Ã¢â¬Å"scholarship boyÃ¢â¬ . Rodriguez writes, Ã¢â¬Å"I lacked a point of view when I read. Rather I read in order to acquire a point of view. Ã¢â¬ (527). Furthermore Rodriguez writes Ã¢â¬Å"I knew too much (and not enough) to be able to write anything but sentences that were overly cautious, timid, strained brittle under the heavy weight of footnotes and qualifications. I seemed unable to dare a passionate statementÃ¢â¬ (531). After these realizations Rodriguez searches for an answer to his shortcomings in academic literature coming face to face with HoggartÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"scholarship boyÃ¢â¬ . For the first time Rodriguez begins to question himself, framing these inquiries through the concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"scholarship boyÃ¢â¬ Through questioning himself Rodriguez finally comes to terms with himself allowing a synthesis to occur, applying his skills of abstraction to his problem of identity. Rodriguez writes Ã¢â¬Å"And yet, positively: the ability to consider experience so abstractly allowed me to shape into desire what would otherwise have remained indefinite. Ã¢â¬ . Rodriguez takes this synthesis further concluding Ã¢â¬Å"If, because of my schooling, I had grown culturally separated from my parents, my education finally had given me ways of speaking and caring about this factÃ¢â¬ (532). Rodriguez goes further to illustrate his transformation, by contrasting his thoughts as a Ã¢â¬Å"scholarship boyÃ¢â¬ with his thoughts in the present. Rodriguez writes Ã¢â¬Å" Faithfully, I wrote down all that they said. I memorized it: Ã¢â¬Å"The praise of the unlettered by the highly educated is the primary theme of Ã¢â¬ËelitistÃ¢â¬â¢ literatureÃ¢â¬ But, Ã¢â¬Å"the importance of the praise given the unsolitary, richly passionate and spontaneous life is that it simultaneously reflects the value of a reflective life. Ã¢â¬ (532). To Rodriguez this quote falls perfectly in line with his own conclusions from his experience, the wisdom of learning to balance the two opposing forces in his life. Yet as a scholarship boy these words mean nothing to him. Rodriguez writes, Ã¢â¬Å"But there was no way for any of it to mean very much to me. I was a scholarship boy at the time, busily laddering my way up the rungs of education. Ã¢â¬ (532). Throughout Ã¢â¬Å"Achievement of DesireÃ¢â¬ , Rodriguez maps his transformation from a Ã¢â¬Å"scholarship boyÃ¢â¬ , to someone with his own authority. It is possible to see a similar transformation occur for Rich when we examine Ã¢â¬Å"When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-VisionÃ¢â¬ . For Rich the final step of this transformation is through her act of writing about her struggle. Rich writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Moreover if the imagination is to transcend and transform experience it has to question, to challenge, to conceive of alternatives, perhaps to the very life you are living at the moment. Ã¢â¬ ¦. For writing is re-naming. Ã¢â¬ (Rich 23). It would seem that a final piece of evidence for RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation is Ã¢â¬Å"Achievement of DesireÃ¢â¬ itself. RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to write about his struggle allows him to use the transformative power of the imagination, effectively using writing as Re-Vision.
Friday, April 3, 2020
Who would have thought that most of my inspiration would come from a teacher that only teaches two periods a day. My music teacher, Mr. Meier, is hands down the only teacher that has instilled actual life long skills. Besides being my inspirational teacher hes also my coach. What sport could a music teacher possibly teach? Marching band of course. Through this sport Mr. Meier has tough me how to become a mentally stronger person. From my first day walking in to spring workshops as an eight grader to my senior year walking off the Syracuse Dome turf, hes always there to help me become a better person. During my first year in drum line, I was the only girl in the section, which made me feel out of place. Once he saw my despair he immediately comforted me by praising me for being so brave to join a once predominantly male section. We will write a custom essay sample on We Ed mire Him or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This has tough me to never second-guess myself and to step outside of the norm. When I struggle with a rhythm, hes always there to encourage me to really dig deep. From his constant reminders Ive learned to never give up and always try hard because in the end theres always a reward. Finally when I felt like giving up he was there to give me his wise words of encouragement about how the ones who try their hardest always prevail over the others. From his words I finally became section leader after all of my five years of hard work. It may sound crazy to some but to me my greatest inspiration is my high school music teacher. From him Ive learned valuable lessons guaranteed to last a lifetime. I always go with my heart no matter what others might say, I never give up even when things get rough, most importantly Ive learned that through failure and hard work anything is possible. Moving on through life will have its ups and downs but I will always remember this great man. Through out my marching band career weve shared and unbreakable bond. So its safe to say Ill always edmire, Ed Meier.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Education in Iceland Introduction Traditionally, education was viewed as a need that was optional and could be substituted to meet other lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s important basics. Today, provision of education has become a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s social responsibility in a majority of the countries.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Education in Iceland specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the challenge remains on the provision of inclusive education and schooling, and how best to tailor the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s educational system to produce citizens who can effectively meet the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s desired qualities. The needs of the society have been continuously transformed by globalization and as such, countries and societies have had to constantly undertake reforms in their educational systems. Background Information on Education in Iceland In Iceland, the provision of compulsory education is the responsibility of the government. According to the refor ms made by the government in 2008 on compulsory education, it is the responsibility of the local municipalities to provide education to all the children in the pre-primary and compulsory school level (European Commission. 2009). Compulsory education is applicable to all children between the ages six and sixteen. The state is charged with the responsibility of providing upper secondary and higher education (European Commission. 2009). The law requires that pupils attending compulsory education to do so on a full time basis and. In addition, the state has also defined the roles of the parent as that of ensuring that children register for school (European Commission, 2009). It is also the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s role to ensure that children attend school. The local municipalities ensure that pupils are given instructions recommended by the law while the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture supervises the implementation process. According to the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (2010), the educational structure of schools in Iceland comprise of the pre-primary level, the compulsory level, the upper secondary level and finally, the higher education. The compulsory level comprise of the single structure-primary and the lower secondary. Pre-primary education is available for children between the ages of 3 and 5, after which they progress to primary schools at the age six and later on enter lower secondary schools at age 11. Students enter upper secondary schools at age 14 after completing their tenth grade and graduate from the upper secondary in the thirteenth grade at age 16 or 17 (UNESCO, 2008).Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All the state and municipality levels, schools are expected to follow the national curriculum provided by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. At the pre-primary level, the teachers in the schools are given the res ponsibility of determining the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s curriculum. According to the European Commission, (2009), the subjects covered at the compulsory level of education include Mathematics, natural sciences, English, social sciences (including History and Geography), art and craft, Physical Education, religious studies, as well as equal rights affairs. The pupils at this level of education are also taught Icelandic as a second language. The curriculum also includes information and communication technology, life skills as well as other foreign languages like Danish, Spanish, or French. At the upper secondary level, the students are taught Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, and Biology, information technology, Economics, History, arts and craft, psychology, environmental systems as well as other languages. Teaching of the Icelandic curriculum is done using the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s native language, Icelandic (European Commission, 2009). The curriculum also provides for extra-curricular and social activities which are incorporated in the daily school activities. Teachers have the autonomy to decide on the teaching methods and materials appropriate for achieving the objectives in each situation. However, instructions for each subject are clearly defined in the curriculum and those that require exposure of learners to their immediate environment normally takes place in the form of field trips. The curriculum requires that assessment be done regularly so as to monitor the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ progress. There is no examination at the end of the compulsory curriculum in grade ten, however, the principal of the compulsory school awards the learner with a certificate of completion (European Commission, 2009). However, at the upper secondary and tertiary levels of education, the subjects are divided into modules and students are assessed at the end of every semester and are graded according to the unit-credit system. Theories of learning supporting Education in Iceland This approach is d erived from the Humanistic theories of learning which emphasize on the natural desire by learners to always gain more knowledge and the need to allow learners to control their learning process as the teachers are reduced to facilitators of the learning process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Education in Iceland specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Constructivism Theory One such humanistic theory is the constructivism theory which argues that human beings develop knowledge and meaning through the interaction of their ideas and experiences. Thus, learners would normally build knowledge upon that that they have already acquired. It also implies learning from experience is very important and therefore it is essential to apply teaching and learning process that incorporates learning through experience. According to Wertsch, (1997), the learner takes an active role in the learning process. This theory recognizes that each l earner is unique and has complex needs and therefore it is important that teachers understand the entry behavior of each learner and the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s unique learning ability. According to Wertsch, (1997), the learners background and culture help shape the knowledge and facts that the learner discovers and acquires during the learning process. The teacher has to consider all these when planning any learning content to be delivered to the learners. Social constructivism theory According to the social constructivism theory, learners learn best through experience and therefore discovery approach should be aimed at providing experience that would enable learners construct knowledge and make sense of the concepts being learnt (Pajares and Schunk, 2001). It also states that learners can conceptualize any information no matter the level or the age of the learner provided that the knowledge is reinforced. Thus a learner centered approach should prepare learners with the specific capaciti es that are necessary for the learner to interact with and in the world that may not be acquired in any other social settings (Pajares and Schunk, 2001). This theory suggests that teachers should take into consideration learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. It is also important for teachers to provide an environment and learning opportunities that enable learners to articulate the knowledge. Repeated experience on the concepts being learnt will enable learners to internalize and apply the concepts in a more sophisticated constructs (Gardner, 2005 and; Pajares and Schunk, 2001).Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These experiences provided in terms of experiments should not be provided in the school setting alone but should include the wider society so as to integrate societal experience and school experience (Gardner, 2005). This theory also suggests that there should be no limits to learning and therefore learners should always be encouraged to gain more knowledge. Purpose and Scope of the Study The main purpose of the study is to investigate the education system in Iceland. It seeks to find out what the government and the Icelandic society as a whole is doing in order to achieve an inclusive education and schooling for its multicultural society. The aim of the study is to acquire best practices employed in the Icelandic educational systems and to analyse the deficiencies that exist in the education system that needs to be improved. The objective of the study is to enable the education providers achieve highest quality of professional development for their learners especially at the primar y and secondary levels of education. This study was done so as to provide future education reformers with base line or reference for carrying out reforms. The scope of this study covers the Icelandic curriculum and pedagogical strategies applied in imparting the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s desired knowledge, skills, values and morals. It discusses the assessment strategies applied to gauge the level of learning in the learners. The study also looks into the role played by the school environment including collaboration with the school parents in shaping the behaviuor of the learners and the learning outcomes. The study also covers the role played by the school culture in the learning process as well as the roles played by the school curriculum and school community in shaping the leadership and organization of the individuals. Methodology The study critically examined incidences in educational systems and practices so as to discover factors that help teachers and the general school community pro vide quality and an all inclusive education and schooling. This was done in order to determine the activities and practices which best foster successful learning in Iceland Schools. The research methodology that was used to collect information was a one-to-one interview. Selecting the school of study involved an underground research through the internet. The selection of the school was based on how modern, the school environment and the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement. Finally I decided on Nordlingaskoli , a new school in Reykjavishire. The principal of Nordllingaskoli was contacted to request for a meeting with him which he confirmed and thereafter an appointment was booked. A questionnaire was designed to cover all the areas of study. The questionnaire prepared consisted of open-ended questions only; to help gather more information and the attitude of the principle towards the education system. The SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Background Information Nordlingaskoli is a new school located in the rural Reykjavishire in RVS District. It has a small student population of about 200 students but this is anticipated to increase before the end of the year. The school uses the national curriculum guidelines in planning its school activities. However, the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s educational system is unique since it applies a mixed-age group in its teaching and learning programmes. Besides, the system focuses more on provision of art and craft and environmental studies. The school has a very unique system of education which applies mixed-age group learning. The principalÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Sif VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir. Findings Curriculum, pedagogy and assessment VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir explained that the school uses the national curriculum guide to plan and carry out its school activities although the planning of the school activities is also based on the aspirations and objectives of the school. Besides, teachers joining the school have to pass an orientation system and be fully info rmed on the objectives of the school and how the school is meeting the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ unique needs. The principal also explained that the assessment of learners takes different forms. Learners can be assessed in their learning groups or individually. The assessment includes both formal and informal evaluation done by the individual teachers. The school has various electives available for the learners. Although it focuses more on art and environment studies, there are also other practical and interesting programmes like home economics, music, drama, information technology among others. The school provides many elective subjects to give the students wide options to choose from and to offer flexibility to learners as well as to give the teachers the time to offer individual tutorials to learners. The school also has plans to increase the number of teachers, introduce more programmes and expand its facilities in order to meet the speculated increase in demand for its services. The sch ools programme of differentiation has been successful according to the school principal. Students are allowed and helped to choose the groups they prefer to join according to their learning abilities and their learning aspirations. Differentiation and mixed-age groupings enables pupils learn from each other particularly from the older members and therefore pupils are better enabled to grasp knowledge and thus they are better enabled to achieve their learning outcomes. Besides, the teachers can easily provide for the needs of the groups rather than for an individual. Differentiation enables teachers to plan for every individual and at the same time makes school activities to be flexible. Differentiation and mixed-age groups enable learners achieve maximum results and inner motivation to acquire more knowledge and skills. The learner identifies the area of interest and both the teacher and parent help the learner choose his or her area of interest. The teacher discusses the ability of the learner with the parent in order to help the learner choose the area of interest that best suits his or her abilities and meets is or her needs. The school is very much prepared to meet the needs of learners who join the school while they are still very young. The instruction materials are tailored to motivate them and help them concentrate in learning activities. The instruction contents given to them do not cover wider learning content and also involved more activities that develop their motor skills like play and other outdoor activities. According to the principal, school systems with shorter working periods are not able to complete their programmes or even adequately provide for the individual needs of their learners. This means that in most cases learners have to endure with daily classroom activities which may be boring if done continuously. Besides, the teachers do not get the time to expose learners to the realities in their environment and thus the learners may not be able to apply or connect the knowledge and skills learnt in class to the real world. According to the principal, the students are easily assimilated in other learning systems particularly in the upper secondary schools since most of their learning is practical. The workshops which the school organizes for the learners impart practical skills which are very much related to the vocational training offered in the upper secondary schools or even in job applications. The practical skills offered to the learners make them more competent and better equipped to solve problems that occur in real life situations. The outdoor activities and the mixed-age groups in the school enable learners develop life skills and social skills which are very important in socializing within the society. VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir explained that the school operates in accordance with the guidelines provided by the national curriculum which require that learners should be automatically promoted to the next class . Therefore the age and the year of entry determine the promotion to the next level. Surroundings and material The outdoor activities carried out as part of school activities are normally under the close supervision of the teacher who provides guidance on the activities. Besides, students are normally in their groups hence easier to manage since members of a group are responsible for each individual in the group. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ health is the responsibility of both the teacher and the parents. Since the goals of the school are shared by the parents and they understand what the school plans to achieve, they understand that their children need to keep their children warm always. This helps the school protect the lives of the learners from the weather conditions that might affect the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. Besides, the learners also have free health care provided by the government. Enhancing the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ concentration while in class is very important in the school, therefore the teachers ensure that the instructional materials provided are interesting and that the learning content and the instructional materials have been decided upon by the learners and the teacher. These enhance the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ concentration and also motivate the learners. Conflict resolution is a very important aspect of education in a multicultural education today. According to VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir, the school is committed to promoting learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ appreciation of diversity and how to overcome prejudice. According to Wendy (1994), it is also important to teach the learners how to manager their anger and be tolerant to each other. This enables learners control their emotions (Banks and Banks, 2005). The guidance and counseling department takes the lead in helping the learners understand the need to exist in unity in diversity. According to the principal, the school understands that wherever the learners come from, there is normally prejudice instilled into them by their respective societies; therefore it is very important to teach learners to avoid acting on their prejudice that they come with from their respective communities. The school organises bonding workshops at the beginning of each academic year in autumn in what the school considers to be the biggest workshop in the school called the Ã¢â¬Å"The HomesteadÃ¢â¬ . Since the school exists in an environment with trees it is not difficult acquiring the materials for the wood work lessons. Again, since the school is a public one, these materials are provided for by the government (European Commission, 2009). According the principal, some materials are also bought by the school and at the same time, learners are given the chance to go for field trips to observe what happens in woodwork workshops or tree forests. According to VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir, the school organises and sponsor many local and international community outreach programmes such as Habit for Humans. Learners collaborate with t he school community activities such as cleaning the environment, garbage collections and sorting, tree planting and many others. Languages of the school The official languages that the learners are supposed to use while in school are English and Icelandic. However, learners are also encouraged to keep their native languages since the school believes that one can better learn a second language through his or her mother tongue. According to VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir, the school does not find it difficult dealing with the diversity of languages since the teaching staff also comprises of diverse languages. The staff operates as a team, shares and cooperatively solves problems that they meet while dealing with the learners. School culture: Communication, collaboration and atmosphere The uniqueness of the school system is not at all a barrier to the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ interaction with the outside world. According to the principle, the school is involved in many programmes which ensure that they are not cut out of the outside world. They are involved in music, drama and sports activities such as basketball, football, volleyball and baseball, and tennis, dance, cheerleading, and swimming among many others. These activities are distributed across the three seasons of autumn, winter and spring which find the learners in school. The sports activities give the learners a chance to compete and interact with other schools and the outside community. Besides, the learners are also given the opportunity to participate in inter-school academic activities, science congress and other studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ forums. The school has computer laboratory connected to the internet. This gives the learners the opportunity to connect to the outside world and to even invite community resource persons of their own choice. The school also invites experts, professionals, artists and other community resources persons to come share with the learners. The school appreciates the uniqueness of the other n eighbouring schools and organises collaborative activities with the neighbouring schools to gain from the different learning experiences that the other learners are exposed to. The school also organises collaborative activities with the neighbouring schools to enable its learners better develop their social skills and to increase their network of friends. The school is aware of the diversity of cultural backgrounds among the teachers, learners and teachers. According to VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir, the teachers have in mind the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s code of conduct and code of ethics. The code of conduct provides them with a guideline on how they are supposed to carry out their duties and how they are supposed to interact. It also provides a guideline on how they are supposed to enhance teamwork in the various groups that exist in the staff which include academic departments and other activities; as well as in the staff as a whole. Besides, the leadership structures within the school admini stration enable the teachers work harmoniously as a team. They also use the internet to share the learning contents, learning materials and other resources which enhance teaching and learning. The environment created by the diversity in teachers, learners and parents is stimulating and provides the learners with a rich experience and exposure. The diversity that exists in the school community gives the school an international image and in turn an international exposure and international understanding of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. The diversity in the school community especially the involvement of parents in the learning activities of school enriches the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ learning content. Since its inception, the school has applied teaching strategies that involve differentiation and co-operative learning which have ensured that each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s work and learning corresponds to his or her needs. Nordlingaskoli believes in the uniqueness of its learners and provides the best environment for optimum achievement of learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ objectives. The school offers tailor-made conditions that meet individual learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. The school is also on course to developing a new reference table which would better enable the school to apply its differentiation programmes to the speculated large numbers of learners in the near future. The programme is being developed in collaboration with the municipal as well as the national education authorities. This would ensure that the programme meets the national education standards in provision of learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ areas of interest such as art and craft, environmental studies and many more. According to VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir, this would enhance flexibility in meeting the needs of the learners. Besides, the diversity in the staff would enable individual learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ attendance. The principal also noted that the school plans to recruit even more diverse teachers to meet the needs of the expected increase in cultu re. According to RagnarsdÃ ³ttir, (2010), it is important to develop a common organizational culture which respects every idea from other cultures. More teachers from different cultures will enable provision of more languages taught in the school and hence help teachers provide for individual tutorial programmes to the learners (Bennett, 1999). Collaboration with homes/families and communities Although fully engaging parents has been a bit challenging since much of their time is consumed by their work, most parents have occasionally turned up whenever called upon. The parents are very much committed to their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The first day of the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s attendance at school takes place at home and two teachers, male and female visit the learner and the parent(s). According to the principal of the school, the parents are involved in setting the objectives of the outcomes of their children, assessing the progress of their children, providing resources, counseli ng their children and evaluating the performance of the school. All the teachers and the administration have access to the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ email addresses which are available in each learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s file and the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s database. This makes communication with the parents to be easier in case of problems or any issue that requires the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement. The surrounding community has also been involved in the various school activities. The surrounding school community provides security to the learners and the school as a whole. They also protect the surrounding environment which includes the local river and the nearby forest which are used by the teachers to provide the needed experience during outdoor activities. The school also collaborates with surrounding community in community outreach programmes such as tree planting and other environment conservation measures. The principal explained that modeling the school culture and environment to fit in the community inv olves creating a common organizational culture that understands the needs and applies the ideas of the community. The teaching materials and learning contents have been tailored to utilize the resources from the local community. Most outdoor activities take place in the local community environment and the experiences which learners are exposed to are derived from the local community. Leadership and organization The principal explains that the school has various outbound activities, workshops, outdoor activities and mixed-age groups which enrich the development of leadership skills and also provide opportunities for learners to practise their leadership skills. The students therefore behave responsibly and are responsible for their friends. There are student leaders in various respective levels of leadership including group leaders, class leaders and other capacities. The students are given guidance and counseling on leadership and management skills by the guidance and counseling dep artment to enable them carry out their responsibilities and duties effectively and efficiently. The student leaders are also given the opportunity to attend leadership workshops and forums with students from other schools. Besides, the school administration recognises and awards students who have demonstrated strong leadership skills in the school community. According to the principal teachers undergo an orientation process to inform them of the mission and, the objectives, the shared aspirations and goals of the school, the parents and learners and the school programmes in order to enable them adapt to the school system. This is done by the school principle, the respective department and all the teachers. The school has room teachers who are responsible for all the activities and needs of each mixed-age groups. The learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ workshops are organized through a coordination of the respective subject teacher, the class teacher, the room teachers, the department involved and the school administration headed by the principal. Learners are also involved in deciding the learning activities of the workshops. These workshops are part of mainstream learning activities and therefore do not involve other schools. According to the principal, the teaching and learning structure of the school is unique since it involves the mixed-age groups and therefore can not be integrated with the teaching in the neighbouring schools. School development and school policy According to the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s principal, the school is more concerned with providing education that meets individual learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and aspirations. Therefore it is in the process of completing the reference time table to enhance differentiation. According to the principal, the school is also developing a software that would enable it disseminate information to learners. The software would enable the school link its website to the National Library Consortium which is owned by the state. The school also encourages and supports teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ innovative programmes for developing better teaching strategies and instructional contents and materials. The school policy, according to VÃ gÃ ¾Ã ³rsdÃ ³ttir, is to ensure that each learner is exposed to learning experiences which best meets his or her objectives and aspirations so as to enable the learner complete his or her education as a happy, independent and strong individual. To ensure that this is achieved, the teachers evaluate the outcome of the learners and the feedback from both the parents and the learners. The teacher and the learner sign a study contract and both set the objectives for the outcome of the study contract. They decide the learning content and the instructional materials. At the end of the programme, the teacher and learner evaluate achievement of the objectives. Evaluation of learners involves the teachers and the parents and discusses the progress of each student. Theories of Learning Explaining the Educatio n System at Nordlingaskoli The school uses the cognitive theories of learning and in particular, the social cognitive learning theory as well as the multiple intelligence theory of learning. Multiple intelligence theory of learning argues that learners should be allowed to exploit their strengths. It states that each learner has multiple intelligence levels therefore the learner should be exposed to various learning experiences in order to help the learner develop all the learning forms (Gardner, 2005). Learners are always curious to acquire knowledge by themselves and therefore should be given the opportunity to do so. What the government is doing According to the European Commission, (2009), the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture provides the national curriculum guidelines for all schools. The curriculum provides pedagogical guidelines, instructional organisations and policies to be applied in schools. It also stipulates the guidelines for the organisation of school activi ties as well as the objectives for the respective levels of education. The ministry also develops and distributes instructional materials to compulsory schools for free through its National Centre for Educational Materials and is coordinated by the District School Boards. The District School Boards are also responsible for monitoring the implementation of schooling as well as instruction in the respective municipalities. They also monitor the school curriculum structure and make recommendations to the local government or the principal of the school on improvements that could be made to improve the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s operations (European Commission. 2009). The government also recognises that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s demography is diverse and therefore has included many foreign languages in the curriculum as well as employs teachers from diverse backgrounds. According to Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (2004), the government has increased the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ participation by trans ferring the management to the municipals. The national curriculum guidelines require that the schools should enable learners acquire Christian and charity values as well as tolerance to each culture and towards each other. It requires that the education offered should enable learners who are Icelanders acquire cultural consciousness and to respect other nations cultures. Recommendations Given that the parents are given the opportunity to participate forums for discussing their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling, it is important that those heading each parents association to consider ways in which their objectives could better help each school achieve its objectives. It is also important for schools to help learners develop a common organizational culture that respects all cultures. Finally, the curriculum gives the learners more authority to control their learning process. Teachers and parents should be enabled to have more control over the learning process particularly for the younger age s in the primary level of education. Summary The study discusses the Icelandic education system and in particular the compulsory education. Provision of compulsory education is the responsibility of municipalities while upper secondary and higher education is provided by the state. The municipality monitors the progress of the education system in accordance with the national education guidelines. However, the challenge for provision of education to the Icelandic community is providing an education system which meets the needs of the multicultural society. The study discusses the measures that have been taken by Nordlingaskoli to ensure provision of education that meets the needs of all learners including their objectives and aspirations while at the same time respecting and shaping their cultural backgrounds. The study discusses theories of learning that form the basis of the Icelandic curriculum which are cognitive and social cognitive theories of learning as well as multiple intel ligence theory of learning. The major characteristic of the school is that it uses mixed-age groups in providing learning experiences for learners. Conclusion Education in Iceland has succeeded in providing multicultural education to its citizens. This programme should be recommended for many nations in Europe and other parts of the world still struggling to provide multicultural education to their citizens. However, in adopting this system the particular nation should consider its population. Reference List Banks, J.A., Banks, C. A. M. (2005). Multicultural education: Issues perspectives. New York: John Wiley Sons. Bennett, C. I. (1999). Comprehensive multicultural education. Theory and practice Boston o.fl.: Allyn and Bacon. Gardner, H. (2005). Multiple lenses on the mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. European Commission. (2009). Organisation of the education system in Iceland 2008/09. Armsterdam: EU. Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. (2010). The Educational system in Iceland Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. (2004). The national curriculum guide for compulsory school. Pajares, F., Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-beliefs and school success: Self-efficacy, self-concept, and school achievement. In R. Riding S. Rayner (Eds.), Self- perception. London: Ablex Publishing. RagnarsdÃ ³ttir, H. (2010). Internationally educated teachers and student teachers in Iceland: Two qualitative studies. Helsinki: CJEAP. UNESCO (2008). Inclusive education and schooling in Iceland. Helsinki: International Bureau of Education. Wendy, S. (1994). Anti-bias and conflict resolution curricula: Theory and practice. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse. Wertsch, J.V. (1997). Vygotsky and the formation of the mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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